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+5myfantasy Shiro Metawe Tacticsrule brandonhung1 9 posters  
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brandonhung1 Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Mon Dec 07, 2009 9:17 pm  
  
   shadow1126 Advanced Member
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 Subject: Re: off topic Mon Dec 07, 2009 9:19 pm  
  
   brandonhung1 Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Mon Dec 07, 2009 9:36 pm  
  
   Shiro Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Mon Dec 07, 2009 10:42 pm  
  
   Metawe Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Mon Dec 07, 2009 11:21 pm  
  Tacticsrule wrote:
 brandonhung1 wrote:
 oh, and what about a market place? you can only enter it if you have internet connection. You can go there to buy stuff other players are selling, and sell to other players who are buying. Oh, yeah, and the ability to tye to talk.
that would require, (i'm just guessing here) a server to actually form the connection for all the people, really good internet, a heck of a lot of maintainence >.> btw... unless you receive the FS RAR from someone using a flash drive, you have an internet connection to get on the net and d/l the thing x.x Any computer can be turned into a "server", a server is just the computer which stores the databases, sends, and receives information. To create a market you would have to somehow implement the TCP/IP Protocol (the basis of the internet, which is really complicated to learn) in a RGSS (RPG Maker XP's scripting, similar to ruby) script readable by the game. Furthermore it will most likely need a Dynamiclink library (.dll usually) to translate and simplify the translating/coding. So what you said is like the simplified version (; ___________________________________________________________________________ After writing that post, I wonder why I do this...
Last edited by metawe on Tue Dec 08, 2009 2:02 pm; edited 1 time in total  
   Shiro Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Mon Dec 07, 2009 11:27 pm  
 ... So...Much...TEXT... AHHH!!! *Has a Tumor*  
   brandonhung1 Spammer
Posts : 1298 Location : in a house Moderator Points : Warning Points : Reputation : 3 Activity Points : 1414 Registration date : 20091105
 Subject: Re: off topic Mon Dec 07, 2009 11:37 pm  
 I didn't understand a thing u said metawe  
   Shiro Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Tue Dec 08, 2009 1:22 pm  
 i didn't either, thats why i had a tumor  
   Blaze Advanced Member
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 Subject: Re: off topic Tue Dec 08, 2009 4:31 pm  
 Thats not that bad. This is bad  Spoiler:
In 1687, English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton published Principia, which hypothesizes the inversesquare law of universal gravitation. In his own words, “I deduced that the forces which keep the planets in their orbs must [be] reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve: and thereby compared the force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of gravity at the surface of the Earth; and found them answer pretty nearly.”[4]
Newton's theory enjoyed its greatest success when it was used to predict the existence of Neptune based on motions of Uranus that could not be accounted by the actions of the other planets. Calculations by John Couch Adams and Urbain Le Verrier both predicted the general position of the planet, and Le Verrier's calculations are what led Johann Gottfried Galle to the discovery of Neptune.
Ironically, it was another discrepancy in a planet's orbit that helped to point out flaws in Newton's theory. By the end of the 19th century, it was known that the orbit of Mercury showed slight perturbations that could not be accounted for entirely under Newton's theory, but all searches for another perturbing body (such as a planet orbiting the Sun even closer than Mercury) had been fruitless. The issue was resolved in 1915 by Albert Einstein's new General Theory of Relativity, which accounted for the small discrepancy in Mercury's orbit.
Although Newton's theory has been superseded, most modern nonrelativistic gravitational calculations are still made using Newton's theory because it is a much simpler theory to work with than General relativity, and gives sufficiently accurate results for most applications. Gravitational torsion, weak equivalence principle and gravitational gradient See also: EÃ¶tvÃ¶s experiment
LorÃ¡nd EÃ¶tvÃ¶s published on surface tension between 1876 and 1886. The Torsion or EÃ¶tvÃ¶s balance, designed by Hungarian Baron LorÃ¡nd EÃ¶tvÃ¶s, is a sensitive instrument for measuring the density of underlying rock strata. The device measures not only the direction of force of gravity, but the change in the force of gravity's extent in horizontal plane. It determines the distribution of masses in the Earth's crust. The EÃ¶tvÃ¶s torsion balance, an important instrument of geodesy and geophysics throughout the whole world, studies the Earth's physical properties. It is used for mine exploration, and also in the search for minerals, such as oil, coal and ores.
EÃ¶tvÃ¶s' law of capillarity (weak equivalence principle) served as a basis for Einstein's theory of relativity. (Capillarity: the property or exertion of capillary attraction of repulsion, a force that is the resultant of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension in liquids which are in contact with solids, causing the liquid surface to rise  or be depressed...)[5][6]
The simplest way to test the weak equivalence principle is to drop two objects of different masses or compositions in a vacuum, and see if they hit the ground at the same time. These experiments demonstrate that all objects fall at the same rate with negligible friction (including air resistance). More sophisticated tests use a torsion balance of a type invented by LorÃ¡nd EÃ¶tvÃ¶s. Satellite experiments are planned for more accurate experiments in space.[7] General relativity Main article: Introduction to general relativity General relativity G_{\mu \nu} + \Lambda g_{\mu \nu}= {8\pi G\over c^4} T_{\mu \nu} Einstein field equations Introduction Mathematical formulation Resources [show]Fundamental concepts Special relativity Equivalence principle World line Â· Riemannian geometry [show]Phenomena Kepler problem Â· Lenses Â· Waves Framedragging Â· Geodetic effect Event horizon Â· Singularity Black hole [show]Equations Linearized Gravity PostNewtonian formalism Einstein field equations Friedmann equations ADM formalism BSSN formalism [show]Advanced theories Kaluza–Klein Quantum gravity [show]Solutions Schwarzschild ReissnerNordstrÃ¶m Â· GÃ¶del Kerr Â· KerrNewman Kasner Â· Milne Â· RobertsonWalker ppwave [show]Scientists Einstein Â· Minkowski Â· Eddington LemaÃ®tre Â· Schwarzschild Robertson Â· Kerr Â· Friedman Chandrasekhar Â· Hawking Â· others This box: view • talk • edit
In general relativity, the effects of gravitation are ascribed to spacetime curvature instead of a force. The starting point for general relativity is the equivalence principle, which equates free fall with inertial motion, and describes freefalling inertial objects as being accelerated relative to noninertial observers on the ground.[8][9] In Newtonian physics, however, no such acceleration can occur unless at least one of the objects is being operated on by a force.
Einstein proposed that spacetime is curved by matter, and that freefalling objects are moving along locally straight paths in curved spacetime. These straight lines are called geodesics. Like Newton's First Law, Einstein's theory stated that if there is a force applied to an object, it would deviate from the geodesics in spacetime.[10] For example, we are no longer following the geodesics while standing because the mechanical resistance of the Earth exerts an upward force on us. Thus, we are noninertial on the ground. This explains why moving along the geodesics in spacetime is considered inertial.
Einstein discovered the field equations of general relativity, which relate the presence of matter and the curvature of spacetime and are named after him. The Einstein field equations are a set of 10 simultaneous, nonlinear, differential equations. The solutions of the field equations are the components of the metric tensor of spacetime. A metric tensor describes a geometry of spacetime. The geodesic paths for a spacetime are calculated from the metric tensor.
Notable solutions of the Einstein field equations include:
* The Schwarzschild solution, which describes spacetime surrounding a spherically symmetric nonrotating uncharged massive object. For compact enough objects, this solution generated a black hole with a central singularity. For radial distances from the center which are much greater than the Schwarzschild radius, the accelerations predicted by the Schwarzschild solution are practically identical to those predicted by Newton's theory of gravity. * The ReissnerNordstrÃ¶m solution, in which the central object has an electrical charge. For charges with a geometrized length which are less than the geometrized length of the mass of the object, this solution produces black holes with two event horizons. * The Kerr solution for rotating massive objects. This solution also produces black holes with multiple event horizons. * The KerrNewman solution for charged, rotating massive objects. This solution also produces black holes with multiple event horizons. * The cosmological RobertsonWalker solution, which predicts the expansion of the universe.
The tests of general relativity included:[11]
* General relativity accounts for the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury.2 * The prediction that time runs slower at lower potentials has been confirmed by the Pound–Rebka experiment, the Hafele–Keating experiment, and the GPS. * The prediction of the deflection of light was first confirmed by Arthur Stanley Eddington in 1919.[12][13] The Newtonian corpuscular theory also predicted a lesser deflection of light, but Eddington found that the results of the expedition confirmed the predictions of general relativity over those of the Newtonian theory. However this interpretation of the results was later disputed.[14] More recent tests using radio interferometric measurements of quasars passing behind the Sun have more accurately and consistently confirmed the deflection of light to the degree predicted by general relativity.[15] See also gravitational lens. * The time delay of light passing close to a massive object was first identified by Irwin I. Shapiro in 1964 in interplanetary spacecraft signals. * Gravitational radiation has been indirectly confirmed through studies of binary pulsars. * Alexander Friedmann in 1922 found that Einstein equations have nonstationary solutions (even in the presence of the cosmological constant). In 1927 Georges LemaÃ®tre showed that static solutions of the Einstein equations, which are possible in the presence of the cosmological constant, are unstable, and therefore the static universe envisioned by Einstein could not exist. Later, in 1931, Einstein himself agreed with the results of Friedmann and LemaÃ®tre. Thus general relativity predicted that the Universe had to be nonstatic—it had to either expand or contract. The expansion of the universe discovered by Edwin Hubble in 1929 confirmed this prediction.[16]
Gravity and quantum mechanics Main articles: Graviton and Quantum gravity
Several decades after the discovery of general relativity it was realized that general relativity is incompatible with quantum mechanics.[17] It is possible to describe gravity in the framework of quantum field theory like the other fundamental forces, such that the attractive force of gravity arises due to exchange of virtual gravitons, in the same way as the electromagnetic force arises from exchange of virtual photons.[18][19] This reproduces general relativity in the classical limit. However, this approach fails at short distances of the order of the Planck length,[20] where a more complete theory of quantum gravity (or a new approach to quantum mechanics) is required. Many believe the complete theory to be string theory,[21] or more currently Mtheory, and, on the other hand, it may be a background independent theory such as loop quantum gravity or causal dynamical triangulation. Specifics Earth's gravity Main article: Earth's gravity
Every planetary body (including the Earth) is surrounded by its own gravitational field, which exerts an attractive force on all objects. Assuming a spherically symmetrical planet (a reasonable approximation), the strength of this field at any given point is proportional to the planetary body's mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the center of the body.
The strength of the gravitational field is numerically equal to the acceleration of objects under its influence, and its value at the Earth's surface, denoted g, is approximately expressed below as the standard average.
g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2
This means that, ignoring air resistance, an object falling freely near the Earth's surface increases its velocity with 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s or 22 mph) for each second of its descent. Thus, an object starting from rest will attain a velocity of 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s) after one second, 19.6 m/s (64.4 ft/s) after two seconds, and so on, adding 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s) to each resulting velocity. Also, again ignoring air resistance, any and all objects, when dropped from the same height, will hit the ground at the same time.
According to Newton's 3rd Law, the Earth itself experiences an equal [in force] and opposite [in direction] force to that acting on the falling object, meaning that the Earth also accelerates towards the object (until the object hits the earth, then the Law of Conservation of Energy states that it will move back with the same acceleration with which it initially moved forward, canceling out the two forces of gravity.). However, because the mass of the Earth is huge, the acceleration of the Earth by this same force is negligible, when measured relative to the system's center of mass. Equations for a falling body near the surface of the Earth Ball falling freely under gravity. See text for description. Main article: Equations for a falling body
Under an assumption of constant gravity, Newton's law of universal gravitation simplifies to F = mg, where m is the mass of the body and g is a constant vector with an average magnitude of 9.81 m/sÂ². The acceleration due to gravity is equal to this g. An initiallystationary object which is allowed to fall freely under gravity drops a distance which is proportional to the square of the elapsed time. The image on the right, spanning half a second, was captured with a stroboscopic flash at 20 flashes per second. During the first 1/20th of a second the ball drops one unit of distance (here, a unit is about 12 mm); by 2/20ths it has dropped at total of 4 units; by 3/20ths, 9 units and so on.
Under the same constant gravity assumptions, the potential energy, Ep, of a body at height h is given by Ep = mgh (or Ep = Wh, with W meaning weight). This expression is valid only over small distances h from the surface of the Earth. Similarly, the expression h = \tfrac{v^2}{2g} for the maximum height reached by a vertically projected body with velocity v is useful for small heights and small initial velocities only. Gravity and astronomy Main article: Gravitation (astronomy)
The discovery and application of Newton's law of gravity accounts for the detailed information we have about the planets in our solar system, the mass of the Sun, the distance to stars, quasars and even the theory of dark matter. Although we have not traveled to all the planets nor to the Sun, we know their masses. These masses are obtained by applying the laws of gravity to the measured characteristics of the orbit. In space an object maintains its orbit because of the force of gravity acting upon it. Planets orbit stars, stars orbit Galactic Centers, galaxies orbit a center of mass in clusters, and clusters orbit in superclusters. The force of gravity is proportional to the mass of an object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. Gravitational radiation Main article: Gravitational wave
In general relativity, gravitational radiation is generated in situations where the curvature of spacetime is oscillating, such as is the case with coorbiting objects. The gravitational radiation emitted by the Solar System is far too small to measure. However, gravitational radiation has been indirectly observed as an energy loss over time in binary pulsar systems such as PSR B1913+16. It is believed that neutron star mergers and black hole formation may create detectable amounts of gravitational radiation. Gravitational radiation observatories such as LIGO have been created to study the problem. No confirmed detections have been made of this hypothetical radiation, but as the science behind LIGO is refined and as the instruments themselves are endowed with greater sensitivity over the next decade, this may change. Anomalies and discrepancies
There are some observations that are not adequately accounted for, which may point to the need for better theories of gravity or perhaps be explained in other ways.
* Extra fast stars: Stars in galaxies follow a distribution of velocities where stars on the outskirts are moving faster than they should according to the observed distributions of normal matter. Galaxies within galaxy clusters show a similar pattern. Dark matter, which would interact gravitationally but not electromagnetically, would account for the discrepancy. Various modifications to Newtonian dynamics have also been proposed.
* Pioneer anomaly: The two Pioneer spacecraft seem to be slowing down in a way which has yet to be explained.[22]
* Flyby anomaly: Various spacecraft have experienced greater accelerations during slingshot maneuvers than expected.
* Accelerating expansion: The metric expansion of space seems to be speeding up. Dark energy has been proposed to explain this. A recent alternative explanation is that the geometry of space is not homogeneous (due to clusters of galaxies) and that when the data are reinterpreted to take this into account, the expansion is not speeding up after all[23], however this conclusion is disputed[24].
* Anomalous increase of the AU: Recent measurements indicate that planetary orbits are expanding faster than if this was solely through the sun losing mass by radiating energy.
* Extra energetic photons: Photons travelling through galaxy clusters should gain energy and then lose it again on the way out. The accelerating expansion of the universe should stop the photons returning all the energy, but even taking this into account photons from the cosmic microwave background radiation gain twice as much energy as expected. This may indicate that gravity falls off faster than inversesquared at certain distance scales[25].
* Dark flow: Surveys of galaxy motions have detected a mystery dark flow towards an unseen mass. Such a large mass is too large to have accumulated since the Big Bang using current models and may indicate that gravity falls off slower than inversesquared at certain distance scales[25].
* Extra massive hydrogen clouds: The spectral lines of the Lymanalpha forest suggest that hydrogen clouds are more clumped together at certain scales than expected and, like dark flow, may indicate that gravity falls off slower than inversesquared at certain distance scales[25]. O)
Last edited by metawe on Tue Dec 08, 2009 5:59 pm; edited 2 times in total (Reason for editing : Added a spoiler, seriously.)  
   Metawe Spammer
Posts : 3662 Age : 54 Location : insert location here Moderator Points : Warning Points : Reputation : 32 Activity Points : 2811 Registration date : 20080725
Character sheet RPG field: 1
 Subject: Re: off topic Tue Dec 08, 2009 6:02 pm  
  Blaze wrote:
 Thats not that bad. This is bad
 Spoiler:
In 1687, English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton published Principia, which hypothesizes the inversesquare law of universal gravitation. In his own words, “I deduced that the forces which keep the planets in their orbs must [be] reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve: and thereby compared the force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of gravity at the surface of the Earth; and found them answer pretty nearly.”[4]
Newton's theory enjoyed its greatest success when it was used to predict the existence of Neptune based on motions of Uranus that could not be accounted by the actions of the other planets. Calculations by John Couch Adams and Urbain Le Verrier both predicted the general position of the planet, and Le Verrier's calculations are what led Johann Gottfried Galle to the discovery of Neptune.
Ironically, it was another discrepancy in a planet's orbit that helped to point out flaws in Newton's theory. By the end of the 19th century, it was known that the orbit of Mercury showed slight perturbations that could not be accounted for entirely under Newton's theory, but all searches for another perturbing body (such as a planet orbiting the Sun even closer than Mercury) had been fruitless. The issue was resolved in 1915 by Albert Einstein's new General Theory of Relativity, which accounted for the small discrepancy in Mercury's orbit.
Although Newton's theory has been superseded, most modern nonrelativistic gravitational calculations are still made using Newton's theory because it is a much simpler theory to work with than General relativity, and gives sufficiently accurate results for most applications. Gravitational torsion, weak equivalence principle and gravitational gradient See also: EÃ¶tvÃ¶s experiment
LorÃ¡nd EÃ¶tvÃ¶s published on surface tension between 1876 and 1886. The Torsion or EÃ¶tvÃ¶s balance, designed by Hungarian Baron LorÃ¡nd EÃ¶tvÃ¶s, is a sensitive instrument for measuring the density of underlying rock strata. The device measures not only the direction of force of gravity, but the change in the force of gravity's extent in horizontal plane. It determines the distribution of masses in the Earth's crust. The EÃ¶tvÃ¶s torsion balance, an important instrument of geodesy and geophysics throughout the whole world, studies the Earth's physical properties. It is used for mine exploration, and also in the search for minerals, such as oil, coal and ores.
EÃ¶tvÃ¶s' law of capillarity (weak equivalence principle) served as a basis for Einstein's theory of relativity. (Capillarity: the property or exertion of capillary attraction of repulsion, a force that is the resultant of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension in liquids which are in contact with solids, causing the liquid surface to rise  or be depressed...)[5][6]
The simplest way to test the weak equivalence principle is to drop two objects of different masses or compositions in a vacuum, and see if they hit the ground at the same time. These experiments demonstrate that all objects fall at the same rate with negligible friction (including air resistance). More sophisticated tests use a torsion balance of a type invented by LorÃ¡nd EÃ¶tvÃ¶s. Satellite experiments are planned for more accurate experiments in space.[7] General relativity Main article: Introduction to general relativity General relativity G_{\mu \nu} + \Lambda g_{\mu \nu}= {8\pi G\over c^4} T_{\mu \nu} Einstein field equations Introduction Mathematical formulation Resources [show]Fundamental concepts Special relativity Equivalence principle World line Â· Riemannian geometry [show]Phenomena Kepler problem Â· Lenses Â· Waves Framedragging Â· Geodetic effect Event horizon Â· Singularity Black hole [show]Equations Linearized Gravity PostNewtonian formalism Einstein field equations Friedmann equations ADM formalism BSSN formalism [show]Advanced theories Kaluza–Klein Quantum gravity [show]Solutions Schwarzschild ReissnerNordstrÃ¶m Â· GÃ¶del Kerr Â· KerrNewman Kasner Â· Milne Â· RobertsonWalker ppwave [show]Scientists Einstein Â· Minkowski Â· Eddington LemaÃ®tre Â· Schwarzschild Robertson Â· Kerr Â· Friedman Chandrasekhar Â· Hawking Â· others This box: view • talk • edit
In general relativity, the effects of gravitation are ascribed to spacetime curvature instead of a force. The starting point for general relativity is the equivalence principle, which equates free fall with inertial motion, and describes freefalling inertial objects as being accelerated relative to noninertial observers on the ground.[8][9] In Newtonian physics, however, no such acceleration can occur unless at least one of the objects is being operated on by a force.
Einstein proposed that spacetime is curved by matter, and that freefalling objects are moving along locally straight paths in curved spacetime. These straight lines are called geodesics. Like Newton's First Law, Einstein's theory stated that if there is a force applied to an object, it would deviate from the geodesics in spacetime.[10] For example, we are no longer following the geodesics while standing because the mechanical resistance of the Earth exerts an upward force on us. Thus, we are noninertial on the ground. This explains why moving along the geodesics in spacetime is considered inertial.
Einstein discovered the field equations of general relativity, which relate the presence of matter and the curvature of spacetime and are named after him. The Einstein field equations are a set of 10 simultaneous, nonlinear, differential equations. The solutions of the field equations are the components of the metric tensor of spacetime. A metric tensor describes a geometry of spacetime. The geodesic paths for a spacetime are calculated from the metric tensor.
Notable solutions of the Einstein field equations include:
* The Schwarzschild solution, which describes spacetime surrounding a spherically symmetric nonrotating uncharged massive object. For compact enough objects, this solution generated a black hole with a central singularity. For radial distances from the center which are much greater than the Schwarzschild radius, the accelerations predicted by the Schwarzschild solution are practically identical to those predicted by Newton's theory of gravity. * The ReissnerNordstrÃ¶m solution, in which the central object has an electrical charge. For charges with a geometrized length which are less than the geometrized length of the mass of the object, this solution produces black holes with two event horizons. * The Kerr solution for rotating massive objects. This solution also produces black holes with multiple event horizons. * The KerrNewman solution for charged, rotating massive objects. This solution also produces black holes with multiple event horizons. * The cosmological RobertsonWalker solution, which predicts the expansion of the universe.
The tests of general relativity included:[11]
* General relativity accounts for the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury.2 * The prediction that time runs slower at lower potentials has been confirmed by the Pound–Rebka experiment, the Hafele–Keating experiment, and the GPS. * The prediction of the deflection of light was first confirmed by Arthur Stanley Eddington in 1919.[12][13] The Newtonian corpuscular theory also predicted a lesser deflection of light, but Eddington found that the results of the expedition confirmed the predictions of general relativity over those of the Newtonian theory. However this interpretation of the results was later disputed.[14] More recent tests using radio interferometric measurements of quasars passing behind the Sun have more accurately and consistently confirmed the deflection of light to the degree predicted by general relativity.[15] See also gravitational lens. * The time delay of light passing close to a massive object was first identified by Irwin I. Shapiro in 1964 in interplanetary spacecraft signals. * Gravitational radiation has been indirectly confirmed through studies of binary pulsars. * Alexander Friedmann in 1922 found that Einstein equations have nonstationary solutions (even in the presence of the cosmological constant). In 1927 Georges LemaÃ®tre showed that static solutions of the Einstein equations, which are possible in the presence of the cosmological constant, are unstable, and therefore the static universe envisioned by Einstein could not exist. Later, in 1931, Einstein himself agreed with the results of Friedmann and LemaÃ®tre. Thus general relativity predicted that the Universe had to be nonstatic—it had to either expand or contract. The expansion of the universe discovered by Edwin Hubble in 1929 confirmed this prediction.[16]
Gravity and quantum mechanics Main articles: Graviton and Quantum gravity
Several decades after the discovery of general relativity it was realized that general relativity is incompatible with quantum mechanics.[17] It is possible to describe gravity in the framework of quantum field theory like the other fundamental forces, such that the attractive force of gravity arises due to exchange of virtual gravitons, in the same way as the electromagnetic force arises from exchange of virtual photons.[18][19] This reproduces general relativity in the classical limit. However, this approach fails at short distances of the order of the Planck length,[20] where a more complete theory of quantum gravity (or a new approach to quantum mechanics) is required. Many believe the complete theory to be string theory,[21] or more currently Mtheory, and, on the other hand, it may be a background independent theory such as loop quantum gravity or causal dynamical triangulation. Specifics Earth's gravity Main article: Earth's gravity
Every planetary body (including the Earth) is surrounded by its own gravitational field, which exerts an attractive force on all objects. Assuming a spherically symmetrical planet (a reasonable approximation), the strength of this field at any given point is proportional to the planetary body's mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the center of the body.
The strength of the gravitational field is numerically equal to the acceleration of objects under its influence, and its value at the Earth's surface, denoted g, is approximately expressed below as the standard average.
g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2
This means that, ignoring air resistance, an object falling freely near the Earth's surface increases its velocity with 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s or 22 mph) for each second of its descent. Thus, an object starting from rest will attain a velocity of 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s) after one second, 19.6 m/s (64.4 ft/s) after two seconds, and so on, adding 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s) to each resulting velocity. Also, again ignoring air resistance, any and all objects, when dropped from the same height, will hit the ground at the same time.
According to Newton's 3rd Law, the Earth itself experiences an equal [in force] and opposite [in direction] force to that acting on the falling object, meaning that the Earth also accelerates towards the object (until the object hits the earth, then the Law of Conservation of Energy states that it will move back with the same acceleration with which it initially moved forward, canceling out the two forces of gravity.). However, because the mass of the Earth is huge, the acceleration of the Earth by this same force is negligible, when measured relative to the system's center of mass. Equations for a falling body near the surface of the Earth Ball falling freely under gravity. See text for description. Main article: Equations for a falling body
Under an assumption of constant gravity, Newton's law of universal gravitation simplifies to F = mg, where m is the mass of the body and g is a constant vector with an average magnitude of 9.81 m/sÂ². The acceleration due to gravity is equal to this g. An initiallystationary object which is allowed to fall freely under gravity drops a distance which is proportional to the square of the elapsed time. The image on the right, spanning half a second, was captured with a stroboscopic flash at 20 flashes per second. During the first 1/20th of a second the ball drops one unit of distance (here, a unit is about 12 mm); by 2/20ths it has dropped at total of 4 units; by 3/20ths, 9 units and so on.
Under the same constant gravity assumptions, the potential energy, Ep, of a body at height h is given by Ep = mgh (or Ep = Wh, with W meaning weight). This expression is valid only over small distances h from the surface of the Earth. Similarly, the expression h = \tfrac{v^2}{2g} for the maximum height reached by a vertically projected body with velocity v is useful for small heights and small initial velocities only. Gravity and astronomy Main article: Gravitation (astronomy)
The discovery and application of Newton's law of gravity accounts for the detailed information we have about the planets in our solar system, the mass of the Sun, the distance to stars, quasars and even the theory of dark matter. Although we have not traveled to all the planets nor to the Sun, we know their masses. These masses are obtained by applying the laws of gravity to the measured characteristics of the orbit. In space an object maintains its orbit because of the force of gravity acting upon it. Planets orbit stars, stars orbit Galactic Centers, galaxies orbit a center of mass in clusters, and clusters orbit in superclusters. The force of gravity is proportional to the mass of an object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. Gravitational radiation Main article: Gravitational wave
In general relativity, gravitational radiation is generated in situations where the curvature of spacetime is oscillating, such as is the case with coorbiting objects. The gravitational radiation emitted by the Solar System is far too small to measure. However, gravitational radiation has been indirectly observed as an energy loss over time in binary pulsar systems such as PSR B1913+16. It is believed that neutron star mergers and black hole formation may create detectable amounts of gravitational radiation. Gravitational radiation observatories such as LIGO have been created to study the problem. No confirmed detections have been made of this hypothetical radiation, but as the science behind LIGO is refined and as the instruments themselves are endowed with greater sensitivity over the next decade, this may change. Anomalies and discrepancies
There are some observations that are not adequately accounted for, which may point to the need for better theories of gravity or perhaps be explained in other ways.
* Extra fast stars: Stars in galaxies follow a distribution of velocities where stars on the outskirts are moving faster than they should according to the observed distributions of normal matter. Galaxies within galaxy clusters show a similar pattern. Dark matter, which would interact gravitationally but not electromagnetically, would account for the discrepancy. Various modifications to Newtonian dynamics have also been proposed.
* Pioneer anomaly: The two Pioneer spacecraft seem to be slowing down in a way which has yet to be explained.[22]
* Flyby anomaly: Various spacecraft have experienced greater accelerations during slingshot maneuvers than expected.
* Accelerating expansion: The metric expansion of space seems to be speeding up. Dark energy has been proposed to explain this. A recent alternative explanation is that the geometry of space is not homogeneous (due to clusters of galaxies) and that when the data are reinterpreted to take this into account, the expansion is not speeding up after all[23], however this conclusion is disputed[24].
* Anomalous increase of the AU: Recent measurements indicate that planetary orbits are expanding faster than if this was solely through the sun losing mass by radiating energy.
* Extra energetic photons: Photons travelling through galaxy clusters should gain energy and then lose it again on the way out. The accelerating expansion of the universe should stop the photons returning all the energy, but even taking this into account photons from the cosmic microwave background radiation gain twice as much energy as expected. This may indicate that gravity falls off faster than inversesquared at certain distance scales[25].
* Dark flow: Surveys of galaxy motions have detected a mystery dark flow towards an unseen mass. Such a large mass is too large to have accumulated since the Big Bang using current models and may indicate that gravity falls off slower than inversesquared at certain distance scales[25].
* Extra massive hydrogen clouds: The spectral lines of the Lymanalpha forest suggest that hydrogen clouds are more clumped together at certain scales than expected and, like dark flow, may indicate that gravity falls off slower than inversesquared at certain distance scales[25]. O)
You could have at least erase the [x] (x replaces a number) quotations/sources from the wikipedia text...  
   brandonhung1 Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Tue Dec 08, 2009 7:40 pm  
 Are you two planning to be EE majors???? F5  
   Tacticsrule Hyper Member
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 Subject: Re: off topic Tue Dec 08, 2009 7:46 pm  
  brandonhung1 wrote:
 Are you two planning to be EE majors???? F5
all he did was copy+paste from wikipedia... lol  
   brandonhung1 Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Tue Dec 08, 2009 7:56 pm  
 But why bother!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Lol, we are getting off topic in the thread called offtopic!!!
Is that even possible?  
   Metawe Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Tue Dec 08, 2009 10:09 pm  
  brandonhung1 wrote:
 But why bother!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Lol, we are getting off topic in the thread called offtopic!!!
Is that even possible? In an offtopic thread nothing normally considered offtopic is offtopic.  For something really confusing/amusing you shold read the quantum mechanics theory in wikipedia and all the other theories that derivative from it.  
   brandonhung1 Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Wed Dec 09, 2009 12:40 am  
 So... nothing is oftopic? ____________________________________________________________________________
yup, he wants to be an EE major...  
   Metawe Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Wed Dec 09, 2009 3:10 pm  
  brandonhung1 wrote:
 So... nothing is oftopic?
____________________________________________________________________________
yup, he wants to be an EE major... There are two ways of seeing this thread: 1. An offtopic thread in General chat section means that this thread should be about Final Story. 2. As an offtopic thread, no posts normally (out of the chat section) considered offtopic are offtopic here. The only offtopic posts would be those about Final Story. I consider number 1 the real one because #2 ignores the fact that the thread is general chat section even though what #2 says was the point of this thread. ____________________________________________________________________________ Quantum mechanics are physics and a "theory of everything". I like reading about that stuff :x I don't want an EE major... I'm going for programming and maybe a minor as networking specialist. After graduating for that I'll study astronomy and then psychology... I have my life planned out! :D Hopefully I'll have enough money to study all those things...  
   brandonhung1 Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Wed Dec 09, 2009 8:44 pm  
 So kind of EE
Maybe you could help develope FS 2 versions.  
   Shiro Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Wed Dec 09, 2009 9:52 pm  
 i want to eat pie SO OFF TOPIC LULZ!!!  
   shadow1126 Advanced Member
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 Subject: Re: off topic Wed Dec 09, 2009 11:31 pm  
  
   Metawe Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Thu Dec 10, 2009 12:06 am  
  shadow1126 wrote:
 HOLY* thats a lot.
If I can I'll study more things, Retired people get free university!  
   Shiro Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Thu Dec 10, 2009 11:22 am  
 They du? Unless they already took university, right?  
   Metawe Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Thu Dec 10, 2009 2:57 pm  
  Shadow wrote:
 They du?
Unless they already took university, right? At least in BC. It doesn't matter how many courses you have taken before, you still get free university.  
   brandonhung1 Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Thu Dec 10, 2009 5:17 pm  
 Its a freeloader!!!!!!!!! Lol JK
good luck Metawe  
   shadow1126 Advanced Member
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 Subject: Re: off topic Thu Dec 10, 2009 11:58 pm  
  
   Metawe Spammer
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 Subject: Re: off topic Fri Dec 11, 2009 12:12 am  
  shadow1126 wrote:
 hey. whats BC?
British Columbia.  
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 Subject: Re: off topic  
 
    off topic  

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